Effects of peanut and peanut butter consumption on blood lipids and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

Background:
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States is approximately 6% of the total population. Insulin resistance, the major defect of diabetes, leads to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Epidemiological findings suggest that there are potential benefits of frequent nut and peanut butter consumption in lowering the risk of diabetes in women. Peanuts and peanut butter contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA), arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol and vitamin E that have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through improved blood glucose control and favorable modification of blood lipids. When substituted for saturated fat in the diet, MUFA may have important metabolic benefits for person with diabetes.

Study description:
This study investigated the effects of a peanut and peanut butter-enriched diet on markers of CVD risk factors in free-living adults with type 2 diabetes. The primary clinical outcome was HDL-cholesterol; the secondary outcomes included additional serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol), glucose, HbA1C and anthropometry (body weight, body composition and waist circumference).

Sixty participants were assigned to either a control diet (moderate fat with no peanuts or peanut butter) or an intervention diet (moderate fat supplemented with 32 grams of peanuts or 2 Tbsp of peanut butter per day). All participants were provided with an individualized portion-controlled meal plan using the American Dietetic Association food exchange with the oversight of a registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator. Participants followed the assigned diet for six months and made six visits to the study center for anthropometric measurements. At week 12 and week 24, blood was drawn from each participant.

A manuscript has been submitted for peer-review publication.

Publications:
Pending

Presentations:
Reinsma K, Heim L, Wien M, Oda K, Sabaté J. Effects of peanut and peanut butter consumption on waist circumference and body weight in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Experimental Biology 2010, Anaheim CA, April 2010 [FASEB J2010;24:564.18] abstract

Study funded by the National Peanut Board